Early-onset drug use and risk of later drug problems. Childhood and adolescent antecedents of substance use in early adulthood. Childhood and adolescent antecedents of drug and alcohol problems: A longitudinal study. Pathways to adult marijuana and cocaine use: A prospective study of African Americans from age 6 to The relationship between crime and drugs: what we have learned in recent decades. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.
Adult social behavioral effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use among African Americans. Developmental Psychology. The transition to adulthood.
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Annual Review of Sociology. Huebner BM. The effect of incarceration on marriage and work over the life course.
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Substance Use and Misuse. Gorsuch RL. Religious aspects of substance use and recovery. Journal of Social Issues. Miller WR. Researching the spiritual dimensions of alcohol and other drug problems. Merton R.
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The Matthew Effect in science. Dannefer D. Aging as intracohort differentiation: accentuation, the matthew effect, and the life course. Sociological Forum. Hirschi T. Causes of Delinquency. In: Suicide: A Study in Sociology. Spaulding John A, Simpson George. The US Supreme Court ruled that a public access television provider is not a state actor. The US Supreme Court ruled that a Mississippi prosecutor unconstitutionally excluded black jurors from a murder trial. The Constitutional Court of Russia ruled that local authorities may not ban public events by simply citing lack of security plan from organizers.
The New York state legislature passed a bill prohibiting citizens of the state from refusing vaccinations on religious grounds. Indian Prime Minister proposed constitutional amendments to hold simultaneous elections to Lok Sabha and state assemblies. The President of Mexico proposed holding a recall referendum on his presidency on March 21, , at the latest. Pakistan will establish a system of 1, special courts dedicated to addressing gender-based violence.
The date for a referendum on whether or not to extend the vote in presidential elections to Irish citizens living abroad was set for October. The deadline for submission of abstracts is July 15, The deadline for submissions is August 4, You can register for the webinar at this link. Yale Law School invites submissions from PhD candidates and recent graduates from doctoral programs for its Ninth Annual Doctoral Scholarship Conference to be held on November , The deadline for submissions of abstracts is July 8, The Law Faculty at Lund University invites applications for the position of a professor in international law and human rights.
The deadline for applications is September 12, The purpose of this international to support junior researchers in developing research projects and preparing their publications for submission to scholarly journals in the field of socio-legal studies.
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Developments in Constitutional Courts The Constitutional Court of Ecuador approved same-sex marriage in a close decision. The Federal Supreme Court of Brazil voted to criminalize homophobic discrimination. A transdisciplinary approach can change research in several ways. First, this approach opens up the research questions. In the YES! This strategy of asking questions both about risk factors defined by population race, age, or gender and about the local and shifting context of these risks can lead to greater clarity on questions about the risk factors and potential targets for the intervention itself.
Second, involving social epidemiologists can change the scope of intervention research. In another example of transdisciplinary CBPR research, involving Indian tribes, the team first conducted an ecological community assessment, which, among other issues, examined historical trauma. Only after researchers and the tribal advisory committee discussed creating an intervention together, however, did the tribal partners contextualize the losses within their own history of forced relocation off ancestral lands and seek an intergenerational family intervention to support cultural renewal and healing through elder storytelling to children.
Integrating the general with the specific context changed researcher ideas of what to include in the intervention and refocused the research questions about the impact of cultural connectedness on community capacity and health outcomes. Third, involving these researchers in a team can change the evaluation design and measures to better integrate quantitative and qualitative methods.
Because community-engaged participatory researchers are committed to community ownership, initial choices of data to collect could be informed by the contributions of their community partners. For example, a transdisciplinary team might recognize that communities are tired of being surveyed without action and would incorporate assessments of community strengths, history, and readiness for action.
Data analysis could include triangulation of mixed methods, so that data are contextualized and interpreted for and with the community, with potentially enhanced use of results. As Macintyre suggests in her debate on the relationship between individual- and area-level deprivation, not only must empirical evidence of social determinants be up-to-date, but their significance as risk factors and therefore their significance for action should be evaluated in light of local perceptions of social meaning—information that is gathered more consistently by community-engaged interventionists.
Fourth, study results can continue to influence social epidemiology and community-engaged intervention methods, measures, and theories of etiology or change. In the tribal project, intervention results might inform more nuanced measurement constructs of enculturation and historical trauma. Fifth, the grounding of both sets of researchers in applied thinking and in working with community partners will help them to communicate and translate their findings into practice and policy.
Applications could range along a continuum from responding to a policymaker who requests background information, to writing a community or policy brief as an executive summary of original research, to gathering inequities data for informing new interventions, practices, and policies. The development of transdisciplinary research would be encouraged by graduate-level cross-training. The concepts of balance between resources and demands, context, role of community, and power and political dynamics, among others, could be debated.
Teams, which might include students from other disciplines, such as social work, planning, social sciences, and communications, could then elect to work on and apply their research methods, change strategies, and theories to these health problems throughout their training. At the University of New Mexico, a summary integrative experience class for the epidemiology, community health intervention, and generalist master of public health students offers an opportunity for teams to work together after more specific training.
The teams engage with a local clinic and neighborhood to identify health questions from community members and providers, explore the epidemiology literature, and develop program plans and actions. This experience provides students an opportunity not only to ground their training in community priorities, but also to learn how to use information from both perspectives to translate research findings to practice and policy change. The goal is to promote critical reflective educational dialogue and support community-engaged student and faculty teams working off campus for community change.
Integration of training and research provides an opportunity to transcend the traditional academic hierarchy that views epidemiology as the primary science of public health. Social epidemiology already integrates many of the social issues embraced by community-engaged interventionists. Dominique Dalla-Pozza Senior Lecturer. Tony Foley Professor. Kath Hall Associate Professor. Judy Harrison Senior Lecturer. Anthony Hopkins Senior Lecturer. Anne Macduff Senior Lecturer. Wayne Morgan Associate Professor.